What is HTML?

HTML is a language for describing web pages.

  • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
  • HTML is a markup language
  • A markup language is a set of markup tags
  • The tags describe document content
  • HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text
  • HTML documents are also called web pages



HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags

  • HTML tags are keywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets like <html>
  • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>
  • The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag
  • The end tag is written like the start tag, with a forward slash before the tag name
  • Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags



HTML Elements

“HTML tags” and “HTML elements” are often used to describe the same thing.

But strictly speaking, an HTML element is everything between the start tag and the end tag, including the tags:

HTML Element:

<p>This is a paragraph.</p>


Web Browsers

The purpose of a web browser (such as Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari) is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page:



HTML Page Structure

Below is a visualization of an HTML page structure:



          <h1>This a heading</h1>

          <p>This is a paragraph.</p>

          <p>This is another paragraph.</p>



HTML Versions

Since the early days of the web, there have been many versions of HTML:

Version                          Year

HTML                              1991

HTML+                           1993

HTML 2.0                      1995

HTML 3.2                      1997

HTML 4.01                    1999

XHTML 1.0                    2000

HTML5                            2012

XHTML5                         2013


The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration

The <!DOCTYPE> declaration helps the browser to display a web page correctly.

There are many different documents on the web, and a browser can only display an HTML page 100% correctly if it knows the HTML type and version used.

Common Declarations


<!DOCTYPE html>

HTML 4.01

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN”



<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN”


ARTIKEL SOURCE : w3schools

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